Your guide to doing business in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad & Tobago is an island in the Caribbean situated just under 7 kilometres from Venezuela’s north-east coast. One of the richest countries in the region, and the third-richest in the Americas by GDP, Trinidad & Tobago has a highly developed, high-income economy. Although historically reliant on agriculture and fishing, Trinidad & Tobago’s modern economic success is based on foundations in the oil and gas industry, which accounts for around 80% of exports and 40% of GDP. Investments in fossil fuels have driven the economy since the 1970s, although ventures in oil production have recently started to transition to natural gas. Beyond fossil fuels, the economy is diversifying in other ways: important new industries include concrete, chemicals, textiles, pharmaceuticals and telecommunications. Tourism has also grown in significance: Trinidad & Tobago’s’ climate and natural beauty attract millions of visitors - a trend seen across the Caribbean, with an estimated 7% regional industry growth in 2016. After ongoing government efforts to encourage investment, Trinidad & Tobago was ranked 96 on the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Survey 2017.
Financiers interested in Trinidad & Tobago will discover a number of reasons to invest:
After over 140 years of success in oil and gas, Trinidad and Tobago has a well-established economy with gas-based production exceeding oil production.
The twin-island republic has one of the most diversified economies in the English-speaking Caribbean from energy and manufacturing to services and eco-tourism.
The Government of Trinidad and Tobago has embarked on a thrust to further diversify the economy by inviting both local and foreign investors to take advantage of available investment opportunities within the country’s non-energy sectors.
A local entity must be established in order to process a payroll.
The company must -
This process can take approximately two months.
Companies are legally obligated to register for a Board of Inland Revenue (BIR) file number to be used in payment of taxes and filing of returns.
All companies who hire employees must also obtain a Pay as you Earn (PAYE) number from the BIR. The PAYE number is used to remit taxes withheld from employees’ earnings for PAYE and Health Surcharge.
Employers are required by law to register as an employer for national Insurance within 14 days of hiring their first employee.
The registrations process can take on average 10 to 15 working days.
Employees can be paid using domestic bank transfers (ACH) or via cheque payment.
The authorities must be paid via cheque. There is an online payment option for NIS, which is in its initial implementation stage; it is not available for public use yet.
Banks are open Monday to Thursday from 8am to 2pm and Fridays from 8am to 1pm and then 3pm to 5pm. Some mall branches are open Monday to Friday from 10am to 5pm. Royal Bank of Canada Trinidad & Tobago Limited opens in certain malls on a Saturday.
The regular working week in Trinidad and Tobago is Monday to Friday 8:00am – 4:00pm.
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago lies in the Caribbean Sea, and comprises two island landmasses just off the north-eastern mainland of South America. In the 15th century, the territory was a Spanish colony - having been discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1498 - but changed hands several times over the next few centuries. Trinidad and Tobago was eventually ceded to Britain in 1802, but declared its independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976. After declaring independence, Trinidad and Tobago ventured onto the world stage and became a member of the United Nations - today, it also plays a leading role in CARICOM, the Summit of the Americas, and the Free Trade Area of the Americas. Long an important international trading destination, Trinidad and Tobago also contributes a rich heritage to the wider Caribbean, as the birthplace of steelpan, limbo, calypso and many other musical styles and traditions. With a tropical climate, Trinidad and Tobago experiences an annual rainy season, and dry season, while its scenic beauty and impressive biodiversity make it an increasingly popular tourist destination to visitors from across the world.
Population: 1.369 million (World Bank, 2017)
Capital: Port of Spain
Main Exports: Petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Main Language: English
Monetary Unit: 1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar = 100 cents
Internet domain: .tt
International Dialling Code: +1868
The tax year in Trinidad and Tobago runs from January 1st to December 31st.
The Pay-As-You-Earn System (PAYE) is applicable in Trinidad and Tobago and was introduced in 1958.
The employer has the responsibility to deduct taxes from the emoluments (salary, wages, etc.) of their employees in accordance with the PAYE regulations each time a payroll is processed and paid. The employer should ensure that they receive a TD1 Form from the employee to accurately determine the amount of tax to be deducted.
An individual under 60 years, who is non-resident in Trinidad & Tobago and is in receipt of emolument income arising in Trinidad & Tobago, is subject to tax under the PAYE system.
The total amount of income earned in Trinidad and Tobago is taxable whether or not it is received here.
All taxpayers are entitled to a Personal Allowance of TT$72,000.00 per year (as of January 1st, 2016). This means that you do not pay income tax on your first TT$72,000.00 of income, so you pay no income tax at all if you earn less than this amount. The excess is taxed at a rate of 25% if the chargeable amount is below $1M annually. As of January 1 2017, chargeable income above $1M attracts a PAYE tax rate of 30%.
PAYE must be paid by the 15th of the following month. If the 15th falls on a weekend or holiday then taxes are due on the first working day thereafter.
You can reduce the amount of tax to pay by declaring tax-deductible expenses. There are certain tax allowances and credits that may apply.
If taxes are not paid on time then a penalty of 25% of the tax payable will apply and interest at a rate of 20% on the combined tax and penalty.
More information can be found here.
Health Surcharge is a tax, which is charged on employment.
The Health Surcharge is charged and payable;
Those exempt from payment of the Health Surcharge are those;
Health Surcharge is payable at two rates as follows;
For employed persons, the employer must make this payment after deducting the correct amount from the salaries of their employees at each pay period. This amount is payable to the board on or before the 15th day of the month following the month in which the deduction was made. Health Surcharge is payable in cash or cheque and must be accompanied with the PAYE/Health Surcharge Monthly Return.
For individuals other than employed persons, the Health Surcharge shall be paid to the board on or before 31st March, 30th June, 30th September and 31st December in each year of income.
An employer who fails or neglects to deduct health surcharge and/or remit to the board is guilty of an offence. In addition to the amount not deducted and/or remitted is liable to a penalty of 25% of such amount and interest at the rate of 20% on both the outstanding amount and penalty from due date of payment.
Where a taxpayer (including an employee) has outstanding taxes and refuses or neglects to make payments to liquidate this arrears, the Board of Inland Revenue can enforce collection using various methods empowered by the Income Tax Act. One of these methods is the issuing of a Garnishee Order. A copy of the Garnishee Order is also sent to the taxpayer.
Section 112 of the Income Tax Act enables the board to instruct the employer via a Garnishe Order to deduct arrears of taxes from emolument of the delinquent employee for a specific period.
These arrears are deducted in addition to any tax which is due under the PAYE System. A deduction under a Garnishee Order must be remitted to the Board of Inland Revenue at the end of the month in which the deduction was made.
This payment must not be included in the monthly PAYE deductions. A separate PAYE Remittance Form must be used.
For National Insurance purposes, earnings include more than the basic wage or salary. Earnings also include -
The payment of National Insurance contributions is compulsory for employees and unpaid apprentices who are registered or eligible to be registered under the system.
Contributions are -
With effect from September 5th 2016, contribution rates have been increased to 13.2% of insurable earnings. With effect from September 5th 2016, the income ceiling of $12,000.00 per month was increased to $13,600.00 per month in order to maintain the real value of insured income.
Payment of the contribution is shared between the employer and employee according to the rate set out in the act. The employer is statutorily obligated to deduct the employee's share no later than on the date of payment of salaries/wages.
Notwithstanding the cost sharing, the employer is responsible for remitting the total Contribution to the NIBTT.
Any employer who fails to pay contributions, or deducts part of the employer's contribution from the employee' s wages, or contravenes any other requirement of the law, commits an offence and is liable to be prosecuted and fined.
In addition, the employer is obligated to maintain pay records for each of his employees including the unpaid apprentice and domestic. Contravention of this requirement attracts a fine of $500.00 and 3 months imprisonment upon summary conviction.
If an employer has an employee who is in insurable employment and that employee is required to work abroad, then contributions must be paid for the employee at the normal rates during the period that he/she is working abroad providing that:
The following are instances in which no deductions are made from the employees’ wages/salaries and in which the employer only pays a contribution -
Payments are due on the 15th of the month following the month for which salary/wages were paid. Where contributions remain unpaid after the 15th day of the following month, a 25% penalty will be applied from the 16th of the next month, followed by interest of 15% on the total amount outstanding from the following month.
More information regarding social security and the contribution rates can be found here.
New employees must be registered with the National Insurance Board (NIB) if they were not previously registered. The employer needs to complete this registration within the first 7 days of employment.
Employees should make sure that they are also registered with the Board of Inland Revenue (BIR). There is no mandatory time period to apply for a BIR file number but it is advised that the employee does the registration when they become an employee for the first time.
New employees should have the form TD1 from the Board of Inland Revenue at the beginning of employment.
The above applies to both expat and local employees.
In Trinidad and Tobago, there are no legislative specifications regarding the time scale for an employee’s final payment.
A Termination Certificate must be submitted to the NIB. If the employee is being granted a severance (redundancy) payment then notification and approval has to be obtained from the BIR for the payment to be exempt from PAYE and NIS.
There is a legal requirement to provide a payslip, which must show the period earnings, the amount of taxes deducted and the National Insurance Board needs the NIS number to be shown on the payslip.
There are however no further legal specifications as to the format of the payslip, an online payslip would be acceptable.
Payroll reports should be kept for 10 years.