Your guide to doing business in the United States of America
The United States of America is the world’s largest consumer market, with a population of over 326 million people and a GDP of around $18 trillion. Comprised of 50 states across 3.8 million square miles of territory, the USA holds some of the world’s most prestigious business hubs, including Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. In the 20th century, supported by an abundance of natural resources, the United States industrialised rapidly, and emerged as a powerful global economic and political power. Today, the USA holds around 33% of the world’s wealth, and makes up around 25% of global GDP. Traditionally important industries in the USA include manufacturing, automotive and agriculture, but in the 21st century, energy, IT, and high-technology products have played an increasingly important financial role. Over the past decade, economic growth in the USA has trended upwards (since the global crisis), backed by a low regulation business environment and stable political leadership. The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, a member of NATO and the G20, and was ranked 6 on the World Bank’s 2018 Ease Of Doing Business Survey.
There are plenty of reasons to regard the USA as an investment target, including:
The US is open and receptive to foreign investment. Economic and political stability underpins the investment opportunities for foreign investors. Increasingly, with the emergence of multinational companies around the globe, many investors will seek to secure a stake in the lucrative US market.
All companies are required to have a legal entity established in order to process a payroll. An entity must be established in order for an employer to be issued with an Employer Identification Number (EIN), so that wage and tax information can be reported to federal and state taxing authorities. Companies can apply for an EIN in several ways: Online: This is a quick and easy way to apply for an EIN. Fax: To apply by fax, fill out an SS-4 form and fax it to the service centre for the appropriate state. If the submitted form is has a corresponding fax reply number, then an EIN number should be issued within a week. Mail: Applications can be submitted via mail. It may take up to 5 weeks before an EIN is issued through mail applications.
It is mandatory to make payments to both employees and the authorities from an in-country bank account. Generally, banks are open to the public from 0900 to 1700 hours Monday to Friday, and 0900 to 1400 hours on Saturdays.
The working week in USA is Monday to Friday; however, specific work days and hours can vary based on the nature of the business. The working day for commercial offices is usually eight hours, typically from 0800 or 0900 hours, to 1600 or 1700 hours. Lunch breaks range from one hour to one and a half hours.
The United States lies between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and is bordered to the north and south, by Canada, and Mexico. Occupied by Paleolithic tribes as far back as 13,000 BC, Native American civilization developed across the continent - before, the territory was colonised by European powers in the 16th century. Despite increasing political resentment, the territory was ruled by Britain until 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was signed - an act which kickstarted the Revolutionary War. With abundant natural resources and vast space to exploit, settlement of the United States progressed from coast to coast: today it is the third-largest country on earth by landmass (including Hawaii and Alaska) and holds a diversity of climates and environments. Beyond its populous urban centres, the USA is home to some of the world’s most spectacular natural attractions, including the Grand Canyon, the Rocky Mountains, and Niagara Falls.
Full name: United States of America Population: 326 million Capital: Washington DC Major language: English Major religion: Christianity Monetary unit: United States Dollars Main exports: Computers and Electrical Machinery, Vehicles, Chemical Products GNI per capita: US $56,180 (World Bank, 2011) Internet domain: .us International dialling code: +001
Dates are usually written in the month, day and then year sequence. For example, July 1 2015 or 7/1/2015 Numbers are written with a comma to denote thousands and a period to denote fractions. For example, $ 3,000.50 (three thousand dollars and fifty cents).
New Hire reporting is required in the US and reporting requirements vary by state. Go to the American Payroll Association website at www.americanpayroll.org and click on Web Links, State & Local Links for more detail on New Hire reporting.
The laws governing payroll in the US, and the details required for New Hire reporting may vary by state, but most jurisdictions require basic information such as name, SSN, and hire date. Go to the American Payroll Association website at www.americanpayroll.org and click on Web Links, State & Local Links, and go to the New Hire link for more details on specific reporting requirements.
Some states may require a final wage payment to be issued within a certain timeframe. For more detailed information, go to the American Payroll Association website at www.americanpayroll.org and click on Web Links, State & Local Links for more detail under the individual state’s Labor rules section. Authorities do not need to be notified if there is a leaver.
In the US, income tax is charged at federal and state levels. At the federal level, employers must withhold income taxes from employee salaries - at graduated rates of 10%-37% depending on earnings. At the state level, 41 US states (including Puerto Rico and Washington DC) charge income tax on employee earnings - at rates set by the individual state legislatures. Wages generally subject to income tax in the US include salaries, vacation allowances, bonuses, commissions and fringe benefits.
Under the Federal Income Contributions Act (FICA), social security and Medicare taxes are also due in the US. Both employers and employees contribute, and the tax must be withheld by employers from employees’ wages. FICA taxes include Old Age, Survivors, and Disability benefits (OASDI), which are charged at a rate of 6.2% for both employers and employees (12.4% total), and Medicare, which is charged at 1.45% for both employer and employee (2.9% total).
States are also required to participate in the federal unemployment insurance system - provided for by the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. Contributions, benefit amounts, and qualification requirements for unemployment insurance vary by state.
At the federal level, employers in the USA must file Form 941 on a quarterly schedule, and Form 940 on an annual schedule, to report and pay income taxes to the IRS. At the state level, monthly, quarterly and yearly reporting rules are also in place, but vary by jurisdiction. Failure to report tax in the USA may result in severe, and even criminal, penalties - and employers may be held personally liable for tax that should have been withheld from employee salaries.
The United States does not impose a federal standard on how frequently employees should be paid - leaving it to state-level administrations to establish their own laws. Payroll regulations in the US do, however, apply at both the state and federal levels, and require businesses to withhold income tax and social security contributions from their employees during each pay-cycle. It is the responsibility of employers - in both SME, and enterprise payroll set-ups - to calculate and report tax to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Currently, income tax rates in the US range from 0% (for the lowest earners) to 37% (for the highest earners). At the state level, tax rates are set by the local legislature (not all states may impose an income tax) and may range from 0%-8.3%.
Social security and Medicare contributions are also a factor during the payroll process and must be withheld by employers from employee wages. Contribution rates for old age, survivors, and disability insurance stand at 6.2% for employees (and 6.2% for employers), while employee contributions for Medicare stand at 1.45% (matched by 1.45% for employers). Unemployment insurance rates vary by state.
Navigating federal and state taxes in the United States can be complicated: with that in mind, foreign businesses often engage global payroll providers to help them achieve regulatory compliance and ensure the pay process is completed accurately and on time.